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Mech Ageing Dev 1997 Oct;98(1):1-35
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720-3206, USA.
It has become a staple assumption of biology that there is an intrinsic fixed limit to the number of divisions that normal vertebrate cells can undergo before they senesce, and this limit is in some way related to aging of the organism. The notion of such a limited replicative lifespan arose from the often repeated observation that diploid fibroblasts cannot proliferate indefinitely in monolayer culture, and that the number of divisions before senescence is directly related to the in vivo lifespan of different species. The in vitro evidence is countered by estimates that the number of cell divisions in some organs of rodents and man are one or more orders of magnitude higher than the in vitro limit, with no indication of the degenerative changes seen in culture. Serial transplantation experiments in animals also exhibit many more cell divisions than the in vitro studies, with some indicating an indefinite replicative lifespan. I present evidence that vertebrate cells are severely stressed by enzymatic dispersion and sustain cumulative damage during serial subcultivations. The evidence includes large increases in cell size and its heterogeneity, reductions in replicative efficiency at low seeding densities, appearance of abnormal structures in the cytoplasm, changes in metabolism to a common cell culture type, continuous loss of methyl groups and reiterated sequences from DNA, and a constant rate of decline of growth rate with passage. This evidence is complemented by the reduction induced in the replicative life span of diploid cells by a large array of treatments which have different primary targets in the cells. The most consistent and general observation of cell behavior in aging animals, with only a few exceptions, is a reduction in the rate of cell proliferation. This reduction is perpetuated when the cells are grown in culture, indicating it is an enduring and intrinsic property of the cells rather than a systemic effect of the aging organism. A similar heritable reduction in growth rate can be induced in established cell lines by prolonged incubation at quiescence. The reduction can be exaggerated by subculturing the quiescent cells under suboptimal conditions, just as the effects of age are exaggerated under stress. The constant decline of growth rate that occurs during serial passage of diploid cells may represent a similar decay of cell function. I propose that the limit on replicative lifespan is an artifact that reflects the failure of diploid cells to adapt to the trauma of dissociation and the radically foreign environment of cell culture. It is, however, a useful artifact that has given us much information about cell behavior under stressful conditions. The overall evidence indicates cell in vivo accumulate damage over a lifetime that results in gradual loss of differentiated function and growth rate accompanied by an increased probability for the development of cancer. Such changes are normally held to a minimum by the organized state of the tissues and homeostatic regulation of the organism. The rejection of an intrinsic limit on the number of cell divisions eliminates the need for a cellular clock, such as telomere length, that counts mitoses. I offer a heuristic explanation for the gradual reduction of cell function and growth capacity with age based on a cumulative discoordination of interacting pathways within and between cells and tissues. I also make a case for the use of established cell lines as model systems for studying heritable damage to cell populations that simulates the effects of aging in vivo, and represents a relatively unexplored area of cell biology.
Exp Gerontol 1997 Jul;32(4-5):383-394
Geron Corporation, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA.
There are significant changes in gene expression that occur with cellular senescence and organismic aging. Genes residing in compacted heterochromatin domains are typically silenced due to an altered accessibility to transcription factors. Heterochromatin domains and gene silencing are set up in early development and were initially believed to be maintained for the remainder of the lifespan. Recent data suggest that there may be a net loss of heterochromatin with advancing age in both yeast and mice. The gradual loss of heterochromatin-induced gene silencing could explain the changes in gene expression that are closely linked with aging. A general model is proposed for heterochromatin loss as a major factor in generating alterations in gene expression with age. The heterochromatin loss model is supported by several lines of evidence and suggests that a fundamental genetic mechanism underlies most of the changes in gene expression observed with senescence.
Eur J Cancer 1997 Apr;33(5):703-709
Department of Cancer Biology, Berkeley National Laboratory, California 94720, USA.
Most cells cannot divide indefinitely due to a process termed cellular or replicative senescence. Replicative senescence appears to be a fundamental feature of somatic cells, with the exception of most tumour cells and possibly certain stem cells. How do cells sense the number of divisions they have completed? Although it has not yet been critically tested, the telomere shortening hypothesis is currently perhaps the best explanation for a cell division 'counting' mechanism. Why do cells irreversibly cease proliferation after completing a finite number of divisions? It is now known that replicative senescence alters the expression of a few crucial growth-regulatory genes. It is not known how these changes in growth-regulatory gene expression are related to telomere shortening in higher eukaryotes. However, lower eukaryotes have provided several plausible mechanisms. Finally, what are the physiological consequences of replicative senescence? Several lines of evidence suggest that, at least in human cells, replicative senescence is a powerful tumour suppressive mechanism. There is also indirect evidence that replicative senescence contributes to ageing. Taken together, current findings suggest that, at least in mammals, replicative senescence may have evolved to curtail tumorigenesis, but may also have the unselected effect of contributing to age-related pathologies, including cancer.
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