Editor: Steven A. Garan .
Cancer Res 1997 Jul 15;57(14):2956-2960
Bennett SE, Umar A, Oshima J, Monnat RJ Jr, Kunkel TA
Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.
Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disease, the phenotype of which is a caricature of premature aging. WS cells and cell lines display several types of genetic instability, and WS patients have an increased risk of developing cancer. The WS locus (WRN) encodes a protein that shows significant sequence homology to the RecQ family of DNA helicases. Because a DNA helicase may function in DNA mismatch repair, we examined extracts of WS cell lines for mismatch repair activity. Extracts from four different WS lymphoblastoid cell lines containing different WRN mutations and from three within-pedigree control cell lines were all proficient in mismatch repair. In marked contrast, extracts from three independent WS fibroblastoid cell lines were deficient in repair of base-base and insertion/deletion mismatches. Extracts of one of these lines restored activity to extracts of mismatch repair-deficient tumor cells with defined mutations in hMSH2, hMSH3, hMSH6, hMLH1, or hPMS2. This suggests that the WRN mutation in this fibroblast line is not a dominant negative inhibitor of mismatch repair activity and that the repair defect does not reside in these five known mismatch repair genes. Defective mismatch repair in fibroblastoid but not lymphoblastoid cells is consistent with the possibility that WRN protein could have a cell type- and/or tissue-specific role in mismatch repair. Alternatively, a mutation in WRN could predispose cells to mutations in other genes required for mismatch repair activity, at least one of which could be an unknown gene.
Mech Ageing Dev 1997 Apr;95(1-2):31-42
Faury G, Chabaud A, Ristori MT, Robert L, Verdetti J
Laboratoire de Bioenergetique Fondamentale et Appliquee, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France.
We have recently shown, on young adult rat aorta rings, that elastin peptides induce a dose and endothelium-dependent vasodilation mediated by the 67 kDa subunit of the high affinity elastin-laminin receptor and, at least in part, by EDRF (NO). Here we have studied the effects of elastin peptides at circulating concentrations and below, on noradrenaline-contracted rat aortic rings, as a function of age. First, we have observed that, unlike 2-month-old (2M), 4-6-month-old (4M) and 12-month-old (12M) rat aorta rings, 30-month-old (30M) rat aorta rings were unable to maintain their contraction in long lasting experiments. Secondly, elastin peptides at physiological circulating concentrations (10(-6)-10(-3) mg/ml) induce a dose-dependent vasodilation on 4M rings. By contrast, only higher elastin peptide concentrations (10(-3) mg/ml) were effective on 12M rings, whereas rings from both younger (2M) and older animals (30M) did not respond to elastin peptides. Finally, using lactose and laminin as inhibitors, we have demonstrated that elastin peptide-induced vasodilation on 4M and 12M rings is mediated by the 67 kDa subunit of the elastin-laminin receptor. These experiments suggest that the functional availability of the 67 kDa subunit of the elastin-laminin receptor changes with age. It could be hypothesized that in young animals (0-2M) the reusable shuttle role recently demonstrated for the 67 kDa receptor subunit during elastic fiber formation leads to a major decrease in its availability for signal transduction. On the contrary, in adult animals. (4-12M), when developmental elastogenesis is completed, this subunit is essential for extracellular signal transduction. Inefficiency of this receptor in old animals (30M) can be attributed to its uncoupling from its transduction pathway, as previously shown on human cells. Finally, the age-dependent variations of circulating elastin peptide concentration and elastin-laminin receptor responsiveness to elastin peptides are two independent parameters which could influence the vascular tension regulation.
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